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Chest pain is one of the most common reasons that people visit the emergency room. Chest pain varies depending on the person. It also varies in:
It may feel like a sharp, stabbing pain or a dull ache. It may be a sign of a serious heart-related problem. Many common causes that aren’t life-threatening may also have caused it.
When you have chest pain, your first thought may be that you’re having a heart attack. While chest pain is a well-established sign of a heart attack, it can also be caused by many other less serious conditions.
Heart-related causes of chest pain
The following are heart-related causes of chest pain:
- heart attack, which is a blockage of blood flow to the heart
- angina, which is chest pain caused by blockages in the blood vessels leading to your heart
- pericarditis, which is an inflammation of the sac around the heart
- myocarditis, which is an inflammation of the heart muscle
- cardiomyopathy, which is a disease of the heart muscle
- aortic dissection, which is a rare condition involving a tear of the aorta, the large vessel that comes off of the heart
Gastrointestinal causes of chest pain
The following are gastrointestinal causes of chest pain:
- acid reflux, or heartburn
- swallowing problems related to disorders of the esophagus
- inflammation of the gallbladder or pancreas
Lung-related causes of chest pain
The following are lung-related causes of chest pain:
Muscle- or bone-related causes of chest pain
The following are causes of chest pain related to the muscles or bones:
- bruised or broken ribs
- sore muscles from exertion or chronic pain syndromes
- compression fractures causing pressure on a nerve
You may have other symptoms that occur with chest pain. Identifying symptoms you may be having can help your doctor make a diagnosis. These include:
While pain is the most common symptom of a heart problem, some people experience other symptoms, with or without chest pain. Women, in particular, have reported unusual symptoms that later have been identified as being the result of a heart condition:
- chest pressure or tightness
- back, jaw, or arm pain
- shortness of breath
- abdominal pain
- pain during exertion
Symptoms that may indicate your chest pain isn’t heart-related include:
- a sour or acidic taste in your mouth
- pain that only occurs after you swallow or eat
- difficulty swallowing
- pain that’s better or worse depending on your body position
- pain that’s worse when you breathe deeply or cough
- pain accompanied by a rash
- runny nose
- feelings of panic or anxiety
- back pain that radiates to the front of your chest
Seek emergency treatment immediately if you think you may be having a heart attack and especially if your chest pain is new, unexplained, or lasts more than a few moments.
Your doctor will ask you some questions, and your answers can help them diagnose the cause of your chest pain. Be prepared to discuss any related symptoms and to share information about any medications, treatments, or other medical conditions you may have.
Your doctor may order tests to help diagnose or eliminate heart-related problems as a cause of your chest pain. These may include:
- an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG), which records your heart’s electrical activity
- blood tests, which measure enzyme levels
- a chest X-ray, which is used to examine your heart, lungs, and blood vessels
- an echocardiogram, which uses sound waves to record moving images of the heart
- an MRI, which is used to look for damage to the heart or aorta
- stress tests, which are used to measure your heart function after exertion
- an angiogram, which is used to look for blockages in specific arteries
Your doctor might treat chest pain with medication, noninvasive procedures, surgery, or a combination of these methods. Treatment depends on the cause and severity of your chest pain.
Treatments for heart-related causes of chest pain include:
- medications, which may include nitroglycerin and other medications that open partially closed arteries, clot-busting drugs, or blood thinners
- cardiac catheterization, which may involve using balloons or stents to open blocked arteries
- surgical repair of the arteries, which is also known as coronary artery bypass grafting or bypass surgery
Treatments for other causes of chest pain include:
- lung re-inflation for a collapsed lung, which your doctor will perform by inserting a chest tube or related device
- antacids or certain procedures for acid reflux and heartburn, which are used to treat the symptoms
- anti-anxiety medications, which are used to treat chest pain related to panic attacks
However, chest pain can also be a symptom of a life-threatening condition. Seek immediate medical treatment if you think you may be experiencing a heart attack or another heart problem. This can save your life.
Once your doctor makes a diagnosis, they can recommend additional treatments to help you manage your condition.