Bursae are fluid-filled sacs found about your joints. They surround the areas where tendons, skin, and muscle tissues meet bones. The lubrication they add helps reduce friction during movement of the joint.
Bursitis is an inflammation of your bursae. Inflamed bursae cause pain and discomfort in the affected location. They also limit the ways you can move your joints.
General symptoms of bursitis include:
Different types of bursitis also have their own specific symptoms:
- With prepatellar and olecranon bursitis, it can be hard to bend your leg or arm, respectively.
- Trochanteric and retrocalcaneal bursitis can cause difficulty walking.
- Trochanteric bursitis can also make it painful to lie on your hip.
There are several types of bursitis. These conditions may be chronic, meaning they occur on a regular basis. Alternately, they may be acute, meaning they appear suddenly.
Prepatellar bursitis is inflammation around your kneecap, also known as the patella. It can be acute or chronic.
Olecranon bursitis is inflammation around your elbow. The affected bursae are located at the tip of your elbow (olecranon). In some cases, small nodules can be felt within the bursa. It’s usually chronic.
The most common causes of bursitis are injuries or damage to your bursae. Damage may trigger pain, swelling, and redness in the affected area.
However, causes tend to be different for each type of bursitis.
Tears or damage to your kneecaps or knee bursae may cause swelling. Other causes are:
- sports-related activities
- bending your knees repeatedly
- staying on your knees for long periods of time
- bleeding in your bursae
Repeatedly resting your elbows on hard surfaces or a hard blow to the back of the elbow can cause this type of bursitis. It can also be caused by infection or gout.
Many things can trigger bouts of inflammation and pain in your hips. These include:
- lying on your hips for long periods of time
- improper posture while sitting or standing
- any disease that affects your bones, such as arthritis
Running, jumping, or other repetitive activities can inflame the bursae in your heels. Beginning a strenuous exercise without properly warming up may also be a cause. Shoes that are too tight at the back of the heel can make it worse as it rubs against the bursa.
Infectious (septic) bursitis
Infectious, or septic, bursitis occurs when the bursa becomes inflamed due to an infection from bacteria. This usually happens when bacteria are directly introduced into the bursa through a wound in surrounding skin.
Symptoms of infectious bursitis are similar to those of non-infectious bursitis. Your healthcare provider may draw a sample of bursal fluid and use a bursal fluid analysis to test for infectious bursitis.
Risk factors for bursitis include:
- having a chronic medical problem
- participating in repetitive sports or activities
- repetitive use of a given joint
- improper posture
- getting an infection that can spread to your bursae, bones, and joints
- injuries to the bursae
Bursitis can often be diagnosed by physical exam. However, tests can also be used to diagnose this condition.
Needle aspiration is always recommended in cases where infectious bursitis appears to be limited to the joint.
In some cases, such as when a person has olecranon bursitis, performing a needle aspiration will increase the risk of a secondary infection moving from the skin into the bursa.
Needle aspiration may not be performed then. Instead, the person with bursitis may be given antibiotics before being observed clinically. This is known as empiric therapy.
- Antibiotics are necessary in cases in which the bursa is infected.
- Corticosteroids can be used to relieve pain, inflammation, and swelling as long as there’s no evidence of any infection in or around the bursa.
- At-home exercises may help relieve pain and other symptoms. In rare cases, physical therapy is needed.
Bursitis isn’t always preventable. However, making some basic lifestyle changes can reduce your risk of developing bursitis and prevent severe flare-ups:
- Maintain a healthy weight to avoid putting extra stress on your joints.
- Exercise to strengthen the muscles supporting your joints.
- Take frequent breaks when performing repetitive tasks.
- Warm up before starting strenuous activities.
- Practice good posture when sitting and standing.
- Stop an activity if you experience pain.
Your condition will likely improve with treatment. However, bursitis can become chronic. This may be more likely if your bursitis is:
- not diagnosed and treated appropriately
- caused by an underlying health problem that can’t be cured
Talk to your healthcare provider if your pain or other symptoms don’t improve with treatment.